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Friday, July 1, 2011

METALS AND NON METALS Notes for class 8


Class viii  CHAPTER -4    MATERIALS : METALS AND NON METALS
1) Occurrence of metals and non metals :-
Out of the 92 naturally occuringelements 70 are metals and about 22 are nonmetals. Some elements show properties of both metals and non metals. They are called metalloids.
Only some metals like gold, silver, platinum etc are found in the free state. Most metals are found in the combined states as oxides, sulphides, carbonates, silicates etc.
Some non metals are found in the free state like helium, neon, argon etc. and some are found in free and combined states like sulphur, phosphorus etc.
2) Metallurgy :-
Metallurgy:-is science of extraction of metals from their ores and their purification.
Minerals:-are naturally occuringsubstances containing one or more elements or their compounds.
Ore:-is a mineral from which one or more metals can be extracted profitably.
Metallurgical processes:-consists of three main steps. They are :-i) Concentration of the ore ii) Reduction iii) Refining
Concentration of the ore:-is the removal of impurities from the ore.
Reduction:-the process of obtaining the metal from its compound.
Refining:-is the process of purification of the impure metals to obtain the pure metal.
3) Physical properties of metals and non metals:-
Metals
Metals are solids (except mercury).
Metals are hard (except sodium, potassium etc.
Metals have metallic lustre.
Metals have high melting points and bolilingpoints.
Metals are malleable ( can be made into thin sheets).
Metals are ductile (can be made into thin wires).
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Metals are sonorus(produces sound).

Non metals
Non metals may be solids, liquids or gases.
Non metals which are solids are brittle (diamond is the hardest).
Non metals do not have lustresome have a dull luster.
Non metals have low melting points.
Non metals are not malleable.
Non metals are not ductile.
Non metals are bad conductors of heat and electricity (except graphite).
Non metals are not sonorous
4) Chemical properties of metals and non metals:-
a) Reaction with oxygen:-
Metals react with oxygen to form metallic oxides. These oxides are  basic oxides because they react with water to form bases. Eg. Magnesium burns in air to form magnesium oxide. Magnesium  reacts with water to form magnesium hydroxide.
2 Mg + O2--à2 MgO
MgO+ H2O-à  Mg(OH)2
Non metals react with oxygen to form non metallic oxides. These  oxides are acidic oxides because they react with water to form  acids.
Eg. Sulphurburns in air to form sulphurdioxide. Sulphurdioxide  reacts with water to form  sulphurousacid.
S + O2-àSO2
SO2+ H2O---à H2SO3
b) Reaction with water:-
Metals react with water to form metal hydroxides and hydrogen.
Eg. Sodium reacts with water to form sodium hydroxide and  hydrogen.
2 Na + 2 H2O 2 Na OH + H2
Magnesium reacts with water to form magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen.
Mg + H2O Mg(OH)2+ H2
Non metals do not react with water.
c) REACTION WITH ACIDS:-
Metals react with acids to form metallic salts and hydrogen.
 Eg. Zinc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to form zinc chloride  and hydrogen.
Zn + 2 HCl ---------------àZnCl2+ H2
Most non metals do not react with acids.
Some non metals like sulphur reacts with concentrated nitric acid to forn sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and water.
S + 4 HNO3       -----------à SO2+ 4 NO2+2 H2O
d) Metals replace metals:-
A more reactive metal replaces a less reactive metal from its salt  solution.
Eg. Magnesium replaces copper from copper sulphate solution to form magnesium sulphate and copper.
Mg + CuSO4----------------à MgSO4+ Cu
Zinc replaces copper from copper sulphate solution to for zinc sulphate and copper.
Zn + CuSO4------------------à ZnSO4 + Cu
Iron replaces copper from copper sulphate solution to form iron sulphate and copper
Fe + CuSO4----------à FeSO4+ Cu
Based on the reactivity of metals, they can be arranged in the decreasing order of their activity.
5) Activity series of metals :-
The arranging of metals in the decreasing order of their reactivity is called activity series of metals.
In decreasindg order
Potassium
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminium Decreasing
Zinc order of
Iron reactivity
Lead
Copper
Silver
Gold
6) Noble metals :-
Metals like gold, silver, platinum etc. retain their lustre because they do not react with air, water or acids. So they are called noble metals.
Gold dissolves in aqua regia. Aqua regia is a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated hydrochloric acid in the ratio 1:3.
Pure is 24 carat gold. It is very soft and cannot be used for making ornaments. So it is mixed with some silver or copper to make it hard.
7) Uses of metals :-
Iron :-is used for making pins, nails, nuts, bolts, tools,
machines, construction of buildings, bridges etc.
Aluminium :-is used for making utensils, wires, furniture,  parts of aircrafts, vehicles, machines, for packing food and medicines etc.
Copper :-is used for making wires, vessels, electric  gadgets etc.
Gold :-is used for making jewellery, coins medals etc
Silver :-is used for making jewellery. Coins, medals etc.
Platinum :-is used for making jewellery, electric gadgets, plugs in vehicles etc.
Sodium :-compounds are used as common salt,  chemicals etc.
Calcium :-compounds are used for making cement, glass etc.
8) Uses of non metals:-
Sulphur:-is used for making sulphuric acid, salts of  metals etc.
Oxygen:-is used for respiration by living things, burning  of fuels etc.
Nitrogen:-is used for making ammonia which is used for  making fertilizers.
Hydrogen:-is used for making ammonia which is used for making fertilizers, as fuel in rockets, for welding etc.
Chlorine:-is used to kill germs in water.
Iodine:-is used as tincture iodine which is an antiseptic
10) Corrosion:-
The surface of some metals gets corroded when exposed  to moist air for a long time. This is called corrosion.
Prevention of corrosion of metals:-
The corrosion of metals can be prevented by:-
i) Applying oil or grease.
ii) Applying paint
iii) Galvanisation ( coating of metals with non corrosive metals like zinc)
iv) Electroplating ( coating of metals with non corrosive metals like chromium tin by passing
electricity)
v) Alloying ( Eg. When iron is alloyed with chromium and nickel, it forms stainless steel which is resistant to corrosion) 

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